Hate Crimes, science assignment help

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Application: Hate Crimes

The term “hate crime” is relatively
new, having not emerged until the 1980s in journalism and criminal justice
discourse. Today, most members of the general public have at least a basic understanding
of what this term means and to which types of offenses it refers. A hate crime
is commonly defined as “a criminal offense committed against persons, property,
or society that is motivated, in whole or in part, by an offender’s bias
against an individual’s or a group’s perceived race, religion, ethnic/national
origin, gender, age, disability, or sexual orientation” (Taylor, Fritsch,
Leiderbach, & Holt, 2011).

Despite having what seems like a
straightforward definition, it is often very difficult to determine whether an
offense should be classified as a hate crime. For example, in the Amadou Diallo
and Sean Bell cases, police officers acted on assumptions based on race, which
is certainly related to bias. But were these cases hate crimes?

For this Assignment, select a case
from those presented in this week’s Learning Resources that depicts a crime
based on stereotypes and biases of race, ethnicity, and/or sexual orientation.
Consider characteristics that should be present to classify the incident as a
hate crime.

The Assignment (2–3 pages):

  • Identify the case you selected.
  • Describe characteristics that must be present for a crime to be
    considered a hate crime.
  • Based on the characteristics you identified, explain whether or
    not the case you selected might be classified as a hate crime. 
  • Justify your response with references to the literature and the
    Learning Resources.

Two or three pages with
at least three references….

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the
assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT
presenting an explanation from the readings.

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for
this assignments 1) look at the page limits 2) review and follow APA rules
3) create SUBHEADINGS to identify the key sections you are presenting and
4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.


  • Course Text: Investigating
    Difference: Human and Cultural Relations in Criminal Justice
    • Chapter 2,
      “Conceptualizing Difference”
    • Chapter 3, “Privilege
      and the Construction of Crime”
    • Chapter 5, “Social
      Class, Crime, and Justice”
    • Chapter 18, “Fairness
      in the Courts: Investigating and Addressing Race, Ethnic, and Gender
  • Article: Black,
    P. J., & Kari, C. J. (2010). Policing diverse communities: Do gender
    and minority status make a difference? Journal of Ethnicity in
    Criminal Justice
    , 8(3), 216–229.

  • Article:
    Herek, G. M. (2009). Hate crimes and stigma-related experiences among
    sexual minority adults in the United States: Prevalence estimates from a
    national probability sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,
    (1), 54–74. 
  • Article: Lieberman,
    M. (2010). Hate crime laws: Punishment to fit the crime. Dissent
    , 57(3), 81–84. 
  • Article:
    Stacey, M., Carbone-López, K., & Rosenfeld, R. (2011). Demographic
    change and ethnically motivated crime: The impact of immigration on
    anti-Hispanic hate crime in the United States. Journal of Contemporary
    Criminal Justice
    , 27(3), 278–298. 
  • Article: Ellis,
    L., & Say, L. (2011). Hate crime regulation and challenges. Georgetown
    Journal of Gender & the Law, 12
    (3), 367–383.
  • Article: Love,
    E. (2009). Confronting Islamophobia in the United States: Framing civil
    rights activism among Middle Eastern Americans. Patterns of Prejudice,
    43(3/4), 401–425.
  • Article: Miller,
    L. L. (2010). The invisible black victim: How American Federalism
    perpetuates racial inequality in criminal justice. Law & Society
    Review, 44
    , 805–842.
  • Article:
    Saucier, D. A., Brown, T. L., Mitchell, R. C., & Cawman, A. J. (2006).
    Effects of victims’ characteristics on attitudes toward hate crimes. Journal
    of Interpersonal Violence, 21
    , 890–909.
  • Article:
    Zaykowski, H. (2010). Racial disparities in hate crime reporting. Violence
    and Victims
    , 25(3), 378–394.
  • Web Article: Strauss,
    V. (2011). Anti-bullying legislation attacked for allowing bullying.
    Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/post/anti-bullying-legislation-attacked-for-allowing-bullying/2011/11/05/gIQARflapM_blog.html
  • Web Article: Transgender
    Nation. (1998). GLOV LGBT module handout on transgendered persons for DC
    Metropolitan Police Department, DC Fire Department, & Emergency
    Medical Services diversity sensitivity training program. Retrieved from http://www.glaa.org/resources/transinf.shtml